Inaccurate Results – False Positives, and why they occur

Inaccurate Results – False Positives are results that indicate that a subject was lying, when indeed they were not.

Inaccurate Results - False Positives

Irrespective the methodology of Lie Detecting (Polygraph or Voice Stress Analysis), the process and protocols remain the same.

Every well trained, qualified and ethical examiner will always follow a specific process to conduct either a Polygraph or Voice Stress Test.

Should this specific process not be followed, Inaccurate Results -False Positives, may result.

The specific process referred to is the following:

PRE-TEST PHASE

CONSENT:

The subject is advised that the examination process is voluntary and that their written consent is required to confirm that they are offering their full co-operation of their own free will.

SHOULD THIS STEP BE LEFT OUT, THE EXAMINER IS GUILTY OF A MAJOR BREACH OF PROTOCOL!

PURPOSE:

The subject’s understanding of the purpose of the test is determined and therefore further ensures their co-operation.

FITNESS BEFORE EXAMINATION:

The subject is questioned about their physical and psychological state of health to ascertain if there are problems that could have a negative influence on responses to the examination.

SHOULD THIS STEP BE LEFT OUT, THE EXAMINER IS GUILTY OF A MAJOR BREACH OF PROTOCOL!

METHODOLOGY:

The method of truth verification is described and explained in detail, so also the process that will be followed, in order for the subjects’ fears and uncertainties of what to expect, to be addressed.

SHOULD THIS STEP BE LEFT OUT, THE EXAMINER IS GUILTY OF A MAJOR BREACH OF PROTOCOL!

PRE-TEST INTERVIEW:

Information regarding the subject’s personal data, medical history, and working experience is obtained.

Their understanding and value of honesty with people who trust them, is determined. This allows for the examiner to create a psychological set of Control Questions against which reaction to the Relevant Questions, are compared.

SHOULD THIS STEP BE LEFT OUT, THE EXAMINER IS GUILTY OF A MAJOR BREACH OF PROTOCOL!

The questions to be asked during the test must be thoroughly explained and reviewed in this pre-test phase, and the subject must be given opportunity to respond. This is crucial to obtaining reliable results as possible misunderstanding or misinterpretations are eliminated.

SHOULD THIS STEP BE LEFT OUT, THE EXAMINER IS GUILTY OF A MAJOR BREACH OF PROTOCOL!

IN-TEST PHASE
TEST PROCESS

The examiner must lead the test process following exactly the process he explained to the subject previously, as this still further engenders trust and co-operation, as well as maintaining the least levels of stress to the subject.

SHOULD THE EXAMINER NOT ADHERE, THEY ARE GUILTY OF A MAJOR BREACH OF PROTOCOL!

CADENCE

The waiting period between questions differ for Polygraph and Voice Stress Analysis; the cadence between questions is precisely determined to allow for the subject’s homeostasis to return to neutral before the next question is posed to them.

SHOULD THE EXAMINER NOT ADHERE, THEY ARE GUILTY OF A MAJOR BREACH OF PROTOCOL!

QUESTIONS

The Control- and Relevant Questions must be asked in exactly the same way as was previously explained in the Pre-Test phase. Should the examiner change even just one word, primarily misunderstanding and/or misinterpretation may occur, and secondary, the subject is put under undue stress.

SHOULD THE EXAMINER NOT ADHERE, THEY ARE GUILTY OF A MAJOR BREACH OF PROTOCOL!

INACCURATE RESULTS – FALSE POSITIVES, AND WHY THEY OCCUR!

Inaccurate Results - False Positives

So, what is the cause of Inaccurate Results – False Positives?

THE EXAMINER BEING GUILTY OF A MAJOR BREACH OF PROTOCOL!

BREACH OF PROTOCOL

When an examiner is guilty of a major breach of protocol, meaning they did not follow the precise process they were trained to, Inaccurate Results – False Positives may be obtained.

Inaccurate Results – False Positives are the culmination of many unseen factors and occurrences, such as:

  • Should the subject’s understanding and value of honesty with people who trust them, not be determined, the psychological set of Control Questions against which reaction to the Relevant Questions are compared, will be weak. This weakness will result in low definition of reaction to Relevant Questions. Leading to Inaccurate Results – False Positives.
  • Should the questions to be asked during the test not be thoroughly explained and reviewed, and the subject not given opportunity to respond, a door is opened primarily to misunderstanding and/or misinterpretations. Secondary, the deceptive subject may choose to interpret as suits them, and their physiology will always respond accordingly. Leading to Inaccurate Results – False Positives.
  • Should the examiner not lead the test process exactly as was explained to the subject previously, undue stress and subsequent physiological reaction will occur. Leading to Inaccurate Results – False Positives.
  • Should the waiting period between questions not be adhered to, the possibility of ‘bleeding’ is created. ‘Bleeding’ is the measurement of a reaction to a previous, previous question. A delayed response if you will, because the subjects’ homeostasis (Fight or Flight) hasn’t been allowed to return to neutral. Leading to Inaccurate Results – False Positives.
  • Should the questions during the test phase not be asked in exactly the same way as was explained to the subject previously, again primarily misunderstanding and/or misinterpretation may occur, and secondary, the subject is put under undue stress and their physiology will respond accordingly. Leading to Inaccurate Results – False Positives.

In my opinion for specific case related examinations, an acceptable ratio of Lie Detecting Results is 80/20.

80% of specific tests done usually result in No Deception Indicated. The subject was being truthful when answering the Relevant Questions.

20% of specific tests done usually result in Deception Indicated. The subject was not being truthful when answering the Relevant Questions.

In my opinion also, for Periodic Screenings, this ratio changes to 90/10.

90% of Screenings done usually result in No Deception Indicated. The subject was being truthful when answering the Relevant Questions.

10% of Screenings done usually result in Deception Indicated. The subject was not being truthful when answering the Relevant Questions.

This ratio indicates that your Honesty Management Program is successful, ie. Employees accept the parameters for proper conduct and understand the consequences when they do not.

Further, in my opinion, no ratio applies to Pre-employment Tests.

CONSEQUENCES OF INACCURATE RESULTS -FALSE POSITIVES,AND OUR tool to determine if you have ground to demand a re-test

When an employee’s results from a Lie Detecting Test returns as Deception Indicated, usually the consequences are dire.

Immediately trust between employee and employer is broken down. Further, the employee will be put on or remain suspended from work, until an investigation is completed. I do not need to explain the implication of that.

The worst consequence of Inaccurate Results – False Positives, in my view, is that the Lie Detection Industry and examiners lose the trust of their clients and subjects.

Reliability and accuracy is more important than affordability – choose your examiner wisely, re-evaluate your trust in their service regularly.

If you suspect that Inaccurate Results – False Positives are being reported because the above ratios no longer apply for you, download our Questionnaire here, to be completed by your employees who have been subjected to a Lie Detecting test, if all the answers aren’t YES, you may have ground to demand a Re-Test. Inform your current examiner and then use another examiner.

Also, look out for my next blog post on Re-Tests.

Reference: My training and experience over the last 11 years.

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HR Warning!

Consider lie detecting to confront misconduct but be sure of all the facts before you commit to the process and heed this HR Warning!

HR Warning! Collect information

HR Warning! 1; Collect as much information about the incident as possible because this guides you to who to include in the investigation. Testing any employees unnecessarily may lead to a breakdown in trust and therefore communication in the workplace.

HR Warning! Follow the process

HR Warning! 2; Follow a process of inviting all identified employees to interviews aimed at establishing the facts. If any employee refuses to attend, charge them with the lesser offence of ‘failing or refusing to obey a lawful and reasonable instruction’. Or, possibly even with ‘failing or refusing to cooperate in a workplace investigation’.

HR warning

HR Warning! Beware

  • A lie detecting test is not a requirement, rather consent is given in writing.
  • No discrimination and threats may be made.
  • Only questions previously discussed and understood will be used.
  • In addition, they may request an interpreter or any person to attend the examination. This person may not interfere with the process.
  • It is note worthy that a negative result indicates deception rather than being guilty of the crime.
  • Results of Voice Stress Analysis or Polygraph is used as secondary evidence only.
  • Other primary evidence is required.
  • Especially relevant make sure your disciplinary procedures are correct and therefore complete.
  • In conclusion confirm with your examiner that they are willing and able to give expert evidence of the tests’ reliability and accuracy to conclude your case at the CCMA.

What has been your experience, do you have any other HR warning to share?

Reference

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Question that Must be Asked

In my experience, when employers call us in for Pre-employment Voice Stress or Polygraph examinations, they mistakenly leave out a very important question in the belief that their background checks will provide the necessary information.

Our Advice on That Question

My advice is do not leave this question out. Because the prospective employee’s deviant behavior may not have been recorded anywhere, they may still have been involved; directly, indirectly or have knowledge.

And, the Question, I hear you ask…

Our Answer – What that Question is

Did you ever commit any crime?

Pre-employment Question to be asked
stolen bicycle

Percentage Crime not Reported

According to our acting national police commissioner Khomotso Phahlane and minister Nkosinathi Nhleko, the crime situation in South Africa has improved, with seven of the country’s provinces showing an overall decrease in crime.

But, in my opinion people have given up on reporting crimes to the police.

More than half of SA’s crimes not reported

According to Dr Jackie de Wet, from the criminology and forensic studies department at the University of KwaZulu-Natal, the under-reporting of crime is known as the ‘Iceberg Effect’;  where only 20 percent is known, the other 80 percent unknown, but it doesn’t mean it’s not there.

From a report; Victims of Crime Survey compiled by Statistics SA that was based on 31 000 households across all provinces, Dr. Jackie says “These figures, not confirmed or disqualified, would suggest the trend in South African society of crimes being under-reported.”

It must be noted that 3 murders went unreported every day.

While I sincerely hope your future employees are NOT connected to crime in anyway; it is always best to check, AND a ‘CrimCheck’ is not enough!

Reference: Victims of Crime Survey

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’16 Tips to knowing if you’re being lied to’

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Pass a Lie Detecting Test

How to Pass a lie detecting test

Many questions & doubts arise within the mind of a person who knows that soon they will be subjected to a lie detecting test; a Voice Stress Analysis test or Polygraph examination. They want to know how can they Pass the test;

“Can I offer a bribe before taking the test?”

This is not a recommended course of action as getting caught bribing is easier than getting caught cheating a polygraph.

“How accurate are these tests?”

There is no definite answer to the accuracy of Lie Detecting tests as it will depends on the type of Hard- & Software used, when it was made, who made it, etc.

Pass a Lie Detecting Test - Polygraph
Polygraph Pneumos

“Can harming myself, such as pinching or biting my tongue, affect the test?”

Similar results are caused by pain and lying so, Yes. A thumbtack in your shoe is an option.

“Can I pass a lie detecting test by telling the truth?”

Passing a polygraph test by telling the truth, is the preferred way! Those who don’t want to tell the truth are the ones who cheat.

 

“How long does it take to get the results of the test?”

The length of the test determines the process for getting results.

 

“Can I be found guilty if I am innocent?”

Many biological responses of stress and lying are associated, so yes, even if you were telling the truth, deception could be indicated during a Voice Stress test or polygraph.

lie detecting test - "Can I be found guilty even when innocent?"
“Can I be found guilty even when innocent?”

“Would Benadryl help during a lie detecting session?”

No, it may make you feel better as it is an allergy pill, but not beat the test.

 TIPS to pass Voice Stress Analysis & the Polygraph

  • While answering an accusing question think of something that calms you down, or something you know that you never did. See it in your mind while answering the question.
  • The examiner could throw a curve ball as there are several subtle variations of the lie detecting test. If you really want to pass the test be sure to research these thoroughly.
  • Refusing to undergo a Voice Stress test or Polygraph is the easiest way, but there will be consequences, make sure you know what these are. For pre-employment screenings, this will almost certainly insure that you don’t get hired. However, it’s still a viable option, especially if you are opposed to the usage of such tests in general.

 WARNING!!

  • Perform only one countermeasure at a time or it may become too obvious.
  • Biting your tongue is highly effective, but may be detectable if you move your mouth observably.
  • Examiners of this Company have all be trained to recognize deception and countermeasures – Be aware that you might not be able to beat the lie detector even using these methods.
  • If you are accused of deception or using countermeasures, you will likely be eliminated from the job pool.

My Source website has been read 2,853,477 times; this says something about how many people have investigated how to Pass a Lie Detecting Test – Have you ever tried?

Sources & Citations
AntiPolygraph.org
The Lie Behind the Lie Detector (PDF)

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Understanding How Lie Detecting Works

Our minds being as creative as they are, can conjure up some really amazing stories; In regard to Truth Verification this is very helpful indeed! What Detection of Deception relies on however is the relationship between MIND & BODY.

Huh? How does this Work?

While the MIND can lie, the BODY cannot!

How does this Work?

Our minds being as creative as they are, can conjure up some really amazing stories. In regard to Truth Verification this is the Cornerstone!

What Detection of Deception relies on is the relationship between MIND & BODY.

Through the Autonomous Nervous System the BODY is able to respond to mental images of the MIND – then the BODY responds with feelings.

Feelings are the subtle, visceral sensations passing through the physiology and biology triggered by hormonal/chemical release from the Neurology.

This originally was action-ed by the thoughts passing through the mind.

How again?

The Autonomous Nervous System’s (ANS) job is to either activate or relax the body. When mind and body is congruent the BODY is relaxed.

However, when the mind lies the ANS will activate the body. This system is so sensitive that even the slightest non-truth passing through our imagination, has the result of many subtle sensations being experienced in the body.

So, does it Work?

A lie in thought and made real by words activates the body in such a way that these reactions to in-congruence, can be measured.

YES, it Works!!

Does it Work?

POLYGRAPH measures;

  • Cardiovascular
  • Electrodermal
  • Respiratory changes in the body.

VOICE STRESS ANALYSIS with AVSAPRO records change in the voice.

For both methodologies the data captured is used to offer a result.

  • No Deception Indicated (NDI)
  • Deception Indicated (DI)
  • Inconclusive

Remember, Neither result confirms the subject did, or did not commit the act – results only indicate a reaction to the questions asked; did their body, or did their body not, react when answering the relevant questions.

Ages ago heart rate determined guilt or innocence

Be still my beating heart!

Mankind came a bit closer to the psychology and physiology link regarding Detecting Lies, during those dark, middle ages….

Change in heart rate determine guilt or innocence

The Method of the Ordeal to determine guilt or innocence

During the Middle Ages a suspect’s pulse rate readings were collected for determining his or her guilt.

This method was employed for exposing unfaithful wives and their lovers.

The testing technique was very simple.

A trained individual placed a finger on a wrist of a woman suspected of infidelity. While mentioning names of the men, who could have had an intimate relationship with her, HE measured her heart rate.

The examinee’s pulse accelerated when she heard and, consequently, reacted to the name of her lover.

And, so the change in heart rate became the first measurable parameter!

At least today the Detection of Deception is more objective.

However, objectivity on the part of the examiner requires three factors

  • Scientific method
  • Scientific technique
  • Psychological insight

All three of which were lacking in most of the ancient and medieval attempts to determine the truth.

Indeed, in many parts of the world the methods of the ‘Ordeal’ and of Torture are still employed.

Nevertheless, we have come a long way.

Only at the end of the 18th century were conditions conducive to developing technical means of detecting deception.

These were subsequently named:

  • Lie detector
  • Variograph
  • Polygraph
  • Emotional stress monitor
  • Deceptograph (I like this one the MOST)
  • Voice Stress Analysis

Currently, polygraph and lie detector are the most widely used names in the world

 

Excerpts from this reference

 

And then the relationship between mind and body became clear….

Did you know that your mind and body are one?

And then the relationship between mind and body became clear….

Mankind came a bit closer to the link between the human psychology and physiology and this understanding caused a breakthrough in detecting Lies….

 

The Method of the Ordeal to determine guilt or innocence

 

  • No longer do we submit suspects through an ordeal of life and death, pain and suffering. Rather, truth verification methodologies understand the relationship between mind and body by means of the autonomous nervous system.

mind body 1

While the mind can lie, the body cannot – when the body receives false or incorrect        information, it will react. It is these reactions that are measured during any form of lie              detection. In some cases more than one reaction is measured (polygraph) in another only   one (Voice Stress Analysis).

 

Can you name any physiological reactions you have experienced when telling a lie?

 

At  the end of the 18th century were conditions conducive to developing technical means of detecting deception, subsequently named: lie detector, variograph, polygraph, emotional stress monitor, deceptograph, voice stress analysis to name a few.

 

While Voice Stress Analysis with AVSA is the new kid on the block, currently, polygraph and lie detector are the most widely used names in the world.

 

Excerpts form

http://www.argo-a.com.ua/eng/history.html

 During those dark, middle ages….

Be still my beating heart!

 

Mankind came a bit closer to the psychology and physiology link regarding Detecting Lies, during those dark, middle ages….

 

The Method of the Ordeal to determine guilt or innocence

 

  • During the Middle Ages a suspect’s pulse rate readings were collected for determining his or her guilt. This method was employed for exposing unfaithful wives and their lovers. The testing technique was very simple. A trained individual placed a finger on a wrist of a woman suspected of infidelity, while mentioning names of the men, who could have had an intimate relationship with her. The examinee’s pulse accelerated when she heard and, consequently, reacted to the name of her lover.

victorian lovers 2

And, so the change in heart rate became the first measurable parameter!

 

At least today the Detection of Deception is more objective.  However, objectivity on the part of the examiner requires three factors; scientific method, scientific technique and psychological insight. All three of which were lacking in most of the ancient and medieval attempts to determine the truth.

 

Indeed, in many parts of the world the methods of the Ordeal and of Torture are still employed, nevertheless, we have come a long way, only at the end of the 18th century were conditions conducive to developing technical means of detecting deception, subsequently named: lie detector, variograph, polygraph, emotional stress monitor, deceptograph, voice stress analysis to name a few.

 

Currently, polygraph and lie detector are the most widely used names in the world

 

Excerpts form

http://www.argo-a.com.ua/eng/history.html

Ancient Sparta & Rome….

How important is your honour to you?

The era of pride, honour & glory; ancient Sparta and Rome, tell of many horrific methods of Ordeal to prove your worth….

The Method of the Ordeal to determine guilt or innocence

 

  • A more rigid approach of detecting the truth than has been blogged about before, was used in ancient Sparta. Before being admitted to certain schools Spartan young men were required to pass the selection criteria. The young men were ordered to stand on the edge of a cliff, and were asked if they were afraid. The answer was always negative; however its integrity was determined by the men’s complexion. It was concluded that the pale young men lied and they were pushed from the cliff.

spartan 2

  • In Ancient Rome bodyguard screening was conducted using a similar method. Bodyguard candidates were asked provocative questions. Those who blushed were selected for the job. It was believed that if a person blushed in response to provocative questions, he would not participate in plots.

 

What would you do – admit, deny or blush?

From the Ordeal , truth verification has evolved through many phases, not necessarily in this order; the lie detector, variograph, polygraph, emotional stress monitor, deceptograph, voice stress analysis to name a few.

 

Excerpts form

http://www.argo-a.com.ua/eng/history.html

Even as old as Sanskrit….

Your life in a grain of rice!

rice

Research took me back to Ancient India where stories of lie detecting methodologies were written in Sanskrit….

The Method of the Ordeal to determine guilt or innocence

  •  In India a kind of rice called sathee, was prepared with various incantations. The person on trial eats it, with his face to the East, and then spits upon a peepul leaf.  If the saliva was mixed with blood, or the corners of his mouth swollen, or he trembled, he was declared to be a liar. (Be my guest to figure that one out!)
  •  A slightly different form was described for cases in which several persons were suspected of theft. The consecrated rice was administered to them all, was chewed lightly, and then spit out upon a peepul leaf. If anyone ejected it either dry or tinged with blood, he was adjudged guilty.
  •  The Ordeal of the Balance – also India where it was practiced as early as the Institutes of Vishnu . It was merely this: in one scale the accused was placed; in the other, a counterbalance.  The beam had a groove with water in it, evidently for the purpose of detecting the slightest deflection either way.  The accused then stepped out of the scale, listened to a judge deliver an exhortation to the balance, and got back in. If he were found to be lighter than before, he was acquitted.

We know today that the metabolic research of physiologists shows the human body      undergoes a constant loss of weight of about 12 grams per hour.

A long exhortation, therefore, should have freed the accused!

Do you suppose this is where the symbol of justice – the scale – came from?

Excerpts from

http://www.argo-a.com.ua/eng/history.html